Mechanical Measurements & Metrology

  Sub Code : 10ME32B /42B                        IA Marks     : 25
   Hrs/ Week : 04                                      Exam Hours : 03
   Total Hrs. : 52                                       Exam Marks : 100

PART – A

UNIT – 1
Standards of measurement:

Definition and Objectives of metrology, Standards of length-International prototype meter, Imperialstandard yard, Wave length  standard, subdivision of standards, line and end standard, calibration of end bars (Numerical), Slip gauges, Wringing phenomena, Indian Standards (M-81, M-12), Numerical problems on building of slip gauges.

     6 hours

UNIT – 2
System of Limits, Fits, Tolerance and Gauging:

Definition of tolerance, Specification in assembly, Principle of interchangeability and selective assembly limits of size, Indian standards, concept of limits of size and tolerances, compound tolerances, accumulation of tolerances, definition of fits, types of fits and their designation (IS 919-1963), geometrical tolerance, positional-tolerances, hole basis system, shaft basis system, classification of gauges, brief concept of design of gauges (Taylor’s principles), Wear  allowance on gauges, Types of gauges-plain plug gauge, ring gauge, snap gauge, limit gauge and gauge materials.

   

7 hours

UNIT – 3
Comparators and Angular measurement:

Introduction to comparators, characteristics, classification of comparators, mechanical comparators- Johnson Mikrokator, sigma comparators, dial indicator, optical comparatorsprinciples, Zeiss ultra optimeter, electric and electronic comparatorsprinciples,
LVDT, pneumatic comparators, back pressure gauges, solex comparators. Angular measurements, bevel protractor, sine principle and use of sine bars, sine centre, use of angle gauges (numericals on building of angles), clinometers.

7 hours 

UNIT – 4
Interferometer and screw thread, gear measurement:

Interferometer, interferometry, autocollimator. Optical flats. Terminology of screw threads, measurement of major diameter, minor diameter, pitch, angle and effective diameter of screw threads by 2-wire and 3-wire methods, best size wire. Tool maker’s microscope, gear tooth terminology, use of gear tooth vernier caliper and micrometer.

6 hours

PART – B

UNIT – 5
Measurements and measurement systems:

Definition, significance of measurement, generalized measurement system, definitions and concept of accuracy, precision, calibration, threshold, sensitivity, hysterisis, repeatability, linearity, loading effect, system response-times delay. Errors in measurement, classification of errors. Transducers, transfer efficiency, primary and secondary transducers, electrical, mechanical, electronic
transducers, advantages of each type transducers.

7 hours

UNIT – 6
Intermediate modifying and terminating devices:

Mechanical systems, inherent problems, electrical intermediate modifying devices, input circuitry, ballast circuit, electronic amplifiers and telemetry. Terminating devices, mechanical, cathode ray oscilloscope, oscillographs, X-Y plotters.

6 hours

UNIT – 7
Measurement of force, torque and pressure:

Principle, analytical balance, platform balance, proving ring. Torque measurement, Prony brake, hydraulic dynamometer. Pressure measurements, principle, use of elastic members, Bridgeman gauge, McLeod gauge, Pirani gauge.

6  hours

UNIT – 8
Temperature and strain measurement:

Resistance thermometers, thermocouple, law of thermo couple, materials used for construction, pyrometer, optical pyrometer. Strain measurements, strain gauge, preparation and mounting of strain gauges, gauge factor, methods of strain measurement.

7 hours

Text Books

1.  Mechanical Measurements, Beckwith Marangoni and Lienhard, Pearson Education, 6th Ed., 2006.

2.  Engineering Metrology, R.K. Jain, Khanna Publishers, 1994.

Reference book

1.  Engineering Metrology, I.C. Gupta, Dhanpat Rai Publications, Delhi.

2.  Mechanical Measurements, R.K. Jain Khanna Publishers, 1994

3.  Industrial Instrumentation, Alsutko, Jerry. D. Faulk, Cengage Asia Pvt. Ltd. 2002.

4.  Measurement Systems Applications and Design, Ernest O. Doebelin, 5th Ed., McGraw Hill Book Co.

5.  Metrology & Measurement, Anand K. Bewoor & Vinay A. Kulkarni, Tata McGraw Hill Pvt. Ltd., New-Delhi

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